According to Article 37 – subsection 2 of the Somaliland Constitution (2001) “the structure of the state shall consist of three branches which are:
- The legislature consists two chambers – Upper House (Guurti/Elders) and Lower House (Representatives) with 82 members for each house.
- The executive is led by the President and Vice President and
- The judiciary.
- House of Representatives (HoR) & Local Councilors’ Electoral System of Somaliland is proportional electoral system with an Open List:
- Multi-member District (MMD) System
- 6 Electoral Regions and 23 Electoral Districts
- Each Party provides a List of Candidates certified for official candidacy as per Law No.91/2020 for each region (HoR Elections) and each district (Local Councils’ Elections)
- Citizens Vote for a Candidate chosen from one of those Lists
- Candidates in the parties’ List get seats in order of Votes received for each Candidate
- Multiple winners from each region (HoR) and each district (Local Councils’ Election)
- Seats are allocated to parties proportionally (Each Party/Association receives the same percentage of seats as the percentage of Votes received)
- Each region has specific seats, candidates contest throughout the region and each district has specific seats depending on the grade (Capital City 17 seats, Grade A = 17 seats, Grade B = 13 seats, Grade C = 9 seats and Grad D = 9 seats).
- The terms of office of all elected offices holders are fixed by the Constitution, as five years.
The Presidential Election System of the Republic of Somaliland is a first-past-the-post (FPTP) system in which the winning candidate is the one with the highest number of votes. The President and the Vice-President are elected jointly.
POLITICAL PARTY SYSTEM
According to the Constitution, the multiparty system is composed of national Political Parties and must be accessible and open to all citizenry regardless of gender, tribe, region, etc. Through this multiparty system, the President and the Vice President must run on a joint ticket. Parliamentarians and Local Councilors are directly elected by Registered Voters through Secret Ballot in every five years.
According to the Article #9, provision #2 of the Somaliland Constitution, (2001) “The number of political parties in the Republic of Somaliland shall not exceed three (3)” (More details look at Law No.14/2021.